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The ADR (Accord européen relatif au transport international des marchandises Dangereuses par Route) is an international agreement that establishes rules for the safe transport of dangerous goods by road. Its purpose is to protect life, health, and the environment by regulating transport, storage, packaging, and the categories to which these goods belong.
The volumetric ratio, also known as the "cubage factor" or "load ratio", is a parameter used in the transport sector to determine the efficiency of load space utilisation. It indicates how much space a load occupies in relation to its actual weight, considering the physical dimensions of the load. This ratio helps optimise transport, as bulky but light goods can take up a lot of space without fully utilising the load capacity of a vehicle. Calculated according to a specific formula, the volumetric ratio is crucial for determining shipping rates, planning loads and maximising transport efficiency.
Incoterms, or International Commercial Terms, are a set of international trade rules defined by the International Chamber of Commerce. They specify responsibilities and costs between buyer and seller in international commercial transactions, including delivery terms, insurance, and transfer of risk. They are used to avoid misunderstandings in sales contracts.
TEUs, or Twenty-foot Equivalent Units, is a standard measure in maritime transport and containerisation. It represents the carrying capacity of a 20-foot intermodal container, simplifying the counting and pricing of goods transported on container ships. Each TEU (Twenty Foot Equivalent Units) is 20 feet long, 8 feet wide and 8 feet 6 inches high. This unit facilitates cargo management in port operations and transport planning.
CITES, or the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, is an international agreement that regulates trade in endangered wild plants and animals, promoting conservation and sustainable management. CITES classifies species into three appendices according to the level of protection required. States Parties must regulate trade in listed species and ensure compliance with regulations for the conservation of biodiversity.
A Euro pallet, commonly known as a euro pallet, is a standardised pallet type used primarily in Europe. These pallets have dimensions of 1200 millimetres by 800 millimetres and are designed to be compatible with most storage facilities and goods handling systems in Europe. They are made of wood and are used to facilitate the transport and storage of goods in various sectors, including logistics and distribution.
Fumigation in transport is the treatment of containers, ships, or stored goods with toxic gases to eliminate harmful insects or pests and prevent the spread of disease or infestation during international transport. It is a common requirement in international trade to ensure the safety and quality of goods.
The term 'CMR' refers to the Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road. This international agreement regulates the carriage of goods by road between member countries, establishing rights and responsibilities for the parties involved in road transport, including carriers and consignors. The convention provides a set of standard provisions for international road transport contracts and helps to simplify and harmonise transport rules between participating countries.
The 'EUR.1' document is a certificate of origin used in international trade. It is used to prove that the goods in question were produced, processed, or transformed in one of the countries signatory to the Free Trade Agreement between the European Union and other countries, enabling them to benefit from reduced customs tariffs or exemptions. EUR.1 facilitates international trade by promoting economic cooperation between the nations involved.

The term 'B/L' (Bill of Lading) is a legal document issued by a maritime carrier or shipowner. It certifies the receipt of goods on board the vessel and confirms ownership. It serves as proof of contract of carriage and can be used to collect, pay for or secure goods at the destination. It is a fundamental document in international trade, helping to regulate the rights and obligations of the parties involved in the maritime transport of goods.

The AWB (Air Waybill), or 'air waybill,' is an air transport document issued by an airline or transport agent. It confirms the contract for the carriage of goods by air and contains details of the shipment, including shipper, consignee, itinerary and conditions of carriage. The AWB serves as a receipt, proof of contract and tracking document for goods during air transport. It is essential for international trade and logistics.

FTL, which stands for 'Full Truck Load', is a transport service in which an entire truck or lorry is dedicated to a single load or shipper. This service offers advantages such as increased speed, safety, and control over the load, and is ideal for large shipments or goods that require isolation from other loads. FTL is often chosen to guarantee direct deliveries and reduced transit times in the logistics and transport sector.
LTL, an acronym for 'Less Than Truckload,' refers to a transport service in which the load of goods is less than that required to completely fill a truck or lorry. Instead of dedicating an entire vehicle to a single load, goods from different shippers are consolidated within the same truck. This approach allows for cost sharing and reduces shipping costs for each shipper. It is a service commonly used for smaller shipments and is also called 'Groupage'.
FCL stands for 'Full Container Load'. It refers to a shipping method in which an entire container, such as a 20-foot or 40-foot container, is booked by a single shipper to transport its goods. This offers greater control, security and flexibility over cargo and routing. It is commonly used for large shipments or when it is necessary to completely isolate one shipper's goods from others.
LCL stands for 'Less than Container Load'. It refers to a shipping method in which loads of goods from different shippers, or a single shipment of smaller goods, are consolidated within a single container. This method is used to reduce shipping costs and allows shippers to share the cost of a full container instead of renting a whole container. It is common in maritime shipping and international transport services.
The T1 is a formal document that covers the movement of non-union goods, which are goods originating from outside the European Union. Under the T1 regime, customs measures that would normally apply upon importation are suspended, allowing for smoother transit across countries.
The T2 is a document for the movement of union goods, which are goods originating from within the European Union. Like T1, the T2 regime suspends customs measures that would normally apply upon importation into a common transit country.
The Swiss instrument used for classification is the TARES, which contains all tariff rates, general tariff notes for chapters, explanatory notes for sub-chapters, and, very useful because they are updated for the latest articles, decisions: these are specific cases of particular products that confirm, by the authority, the classification of a specific product, constituting a practical precedent for the future classification of similar products.
In the European Union the Integrated Tariff of the European Communities (TARIC) is applied, which includes, in addition to the 6 digits, additional codes related to EU customs policies and regulations, up to a maximum of 10 digits. Switzerland adds 2 national digits to the international 6 digits and 3 digits (the so-called conventional number) for further statistical sub-division.
To demonstrate the clause of direct transport, the issuance of a certificate of non-manipulation by the customs authorities is required, attesting that the products have not undergone transformations that would alter their origin.
POD (Proof of Delivery) is the document that certifies that your goods have been delivered. It must include all shipment details, as well as the recipient's signature along with their printed first and last name.
By definition, a customs duty is an indirect tax applied to the value of all products imported and exported by the country that imposes it. They are paid on non-preferential origin goods. Alternatively, they are imposed on specific categories of goods as a means of protecting domestic products, and this is determined by the criteria set by each individual country.
When a product is considered to have preferential origin, it means that it meets certain production criteria specified in free trade agreements. To benefit from exemption or reduction of the import duty, a specific merchandise must have a proof of origin compliant with the corresponding free trade agreement.
In Switzerland, the recognized proofs of origin are: Certificate of Circulation of Goods (CCM) – EUR1 / EUR-MED / EUR1 CN Declaration of Origin on the invoice You can read more in this article:
In English, the text to be included is as follows (official specific translations are available in all languages on the Swiss customs website): “The exporter of the products covered by this document declares that, except where otherwise clearly indicated, these products are of …………….. preferential origin” (indicating the specific country of origin or a group of countries).
The Authorized Exporter status is a facilitation provided by customs regulations, offering advantages in imports and exports with specific third countries based on agreements between countries. This status is granted by customs authorities, allowing businesses to declare the preferential origin of exported products directly on the invoice instead of using a certificate of origin.
The Registered Exporter System (REX) is used to certify the origin of goods within the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) and under certain preferential trade agreements. While the Authorized Exporter must be a regular exporter, the Registered Exporter is not bound by this condition. It is required specifically for exporting to certain countries.
The COO (Certificate of Origin) is a certificate like the EUR1 but valid for trades between Switzerland and Japan or Switzerland and China. All the details required for the EUR1 also apply to the COO, which must be written in English. COO is issued by the Chamber of Commerce.
Free trade agreements (FTAs) are international treaties between countries aimed at promoting economic integration and cooperation by reducing barriers to trade.
The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) includes Switzerland, Norway, Iceland, and Liechtenstein.

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